Broken Hill South Rotary 2015 Asian Tiger

Broken Hill NSW Epidemic 1917

Emergency in central Italy: The tiger mosquito

Arbovirus (Arthropod-Borne Virus) are another group of viruses that are transmitted by arthropod vectors. Many important diseases are related to some Arbovirus, like Dengue, Chikungunya fever and West Nile virus disease, and recently several infections, like the yellow fever, transmitted by Aedes sp.

In the last decades, the spreading of Asian Tiger, Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae), all around the world, has caused mainly the colonization of towns environment in Southern Euroe. Until the last two decades, this insect was practically unknown in Europe, including Italy. Rapidly the aggressive tiger mosquito was able to substitute the other mosquitos, occupying every available place, but in particular man environment, dominating mainly in urban areas (flowerpot, little water pool), See diagram below:
Diagrammatic flow chart of transmission.


- of an inhabitant of a place ie. indigenous rather than descended from migrants or colonists.

Assessing the threat of Chikungunya virus emergence in Australia

The re-emergence of chikungunya in Asia and Indian Ocean islands and the emergence in the South Pacific regions, with several chikungunya outbreaks in Papua New Guinea, emphasise the potential of the virus to cause large outbreaks in susceptible populations.

Overseas-travel, particularly for holidays, is probably the primary mechanism for CHIKV introduction to Australia. Therefore, epidemiology, human movements, vector biology and ecology are all crucial to population health planning for potential CHIKV importation into Australia.62

The Australian population is increasingly at risk for CHIKV establishment as the number of visitors coming from countries endemic for CHIKV and the numbers of residents going to visit these countries have increased in recent years. This risk will continue to increase if these countries remain attractive and affordable visitor destinations, and if in-country control efforts or Australian surveillance and traveller education programs are ineffective. In addition to direct morbidity costs, a CHIKV outbreak could significantly impact blood supply and tourism.

The Asian Tiger is yet not Autochthonous here in Australia..... meaning there has been no cases identified from person to person unlike Dengue fever in Queensland. It is the same species of mosquito Aedes Agypti or Albopictus but CHIKV is not established with direct human host as in Italy for instance or France and particularly the Caribbean .


Fatal Caribbean Virus Makes First US Transmission

A virus previously only known in the Caribbean has been transmitted in the US for the first time ever. July 18, 2014
The painful mosquito-born Chikungunya virus passes solely via the insect – not person-to-person.

Two cases of infection have been reported, both in Florida. The patients are a 41-year-old woman near Miami who began experiencing symptoms on June 10 and a 50-year-old man near Palm Beach, who first noticed the illness on July 1.
In neither case had the infected person travelled out of the country just before becoming infected, leading US medical experts to believe some American mosquitos now carry the virus.
Chikungunya virus is incurable and can be fatal. Infected people usually suffer from fever, severe joint pain and swelling, muscle aches, headaches or rashes. The illness is reportedly raging in the Caribbean, where all prior case have been reported.
"The arrival of Chikungunya virus, first in the tropical Americas and now in the United States, underscores the risks posed by this and other exotic pathogens," said Roger Nasci of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), in a statement.
There were more than 230 Chikungunya cases reported in Americans this year, but all the others were travellers thought to have been infected elsewhere.

It would be useful to determine how long people stay in the endemic country, for what purpose (work, family visit, travel) and obtain information about the host (age, sex, income, level of education) and virus (strains). Australian authorities must continue to implement vector surveillance and control programs for the major vectors, Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus and ensure that the ongoing biosecurity measures are maintained in order to keep the country free of 
Ae. albopictus. Media and stakeholders should be kept well informed. Greater knowledge of the characteristics of each imported case is needed. Modeling of transmission risk is also important in order to predict future vector distribution and disease risk.

Notwithstanding the efforts of state and territory health departments (notably the Northern Territory Health Department and Queensland Health) to successfully manage exotic mosquito-borne diseases and their vectors, 45,46 the introduction of exotic vectors cannot be wholly prevented.

It is likely that Ae. albopictus will become established on the Australian mainland.23 Although numerous detections of Ae. albopictus have been successfully managed without the establishment of this species as yet, incursions continue to occur.

In recent times Ae. albopictus was detected near Melbourne (December 2012) and is the subject of an on-going surveillance and control program (S. Lynch, Victorian Department of Primary Industries, pers. comm. 20 Dec 2012). The mosquitoes entered via a consignment of lucky bamboo (Dracaena). In Australia, other mosquito species such as Ae. vigilax, Ae. procax, Ae. notoscriptus and Cq. linealis,47-49 could potentially transmit CHIKV,18 although this is highly unlikely because of their behavior and ecology.

We have the climate the environment and the Mosquito...its only a matter of time!

CHIKV has re-emerged after two to four decades, in some countries e.g. after 39 years in the Democratic Republic of Congo, 32 years in India, and 20 years in Indonesia.51 In Southeast Asian endemic regions, where the original Asian genotype circulated for several decades, new strains belonging to the Indian Ocean Lineages (IOL) have emerged,52,53 and caused major outbreaks especially in Malaysia.53-57

The shift in viral genotypes is a major threat not only for the Asian region but also for the Western Pacific and Australia, where Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus are present in Queensland.


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